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培根美文《论读书》原文及三种译文

时间:2019-02-25 08:12 来源:网络整理 作者:聂世领书法网 阅读:

书有可浅尝者,有可吞食者,少数则须咀嚼消化。换言之,有只须读其部分者,有只须大体涉猎者,少数则须全读,读时须全神贯注,孜孜不倦。书亦可请人代读,取其所作摘要,但只限题材较次或价值不高者,否则书经提炼犹如水经蒸馏,淡而五味矣。

读书使人充实,讨论使人机智,笔记使人准确。因此不常做笔记者须记忆特强,不常讨论者须天生聪颖,不常读书者须欺世有术,始能无知而显有知。

读史使人明智,读诗使人灵秀,数学使人周密,科学使人深刻,论理学使人庄重,逻辑修辞之学使人善辩:凡有所学,皆成性格。人之才智但有滞碍,无不可读适当之书使之顺畅,一如身体百病,皆可借相宜之运动除之。滚球利睾肾,射箭利胸肺,慢步利肠胃,骑术利头脑,诸如此类。如智力不集中,可令读数学,盖演算须全神贯注,稍有分散即须重演;如不能辨异,可令读经院哲学,盖是辈皆吹毛求疵之人;如不善求同,不善以一物阐证另一物,可令读律师之案卷。如此头脑中凡有缺陷,皆有特药可医。

【原文】

Of Studies

——Francis Bacon

Studies serve for delight, for ornament, and for ability. Their chief use for delight, is in privateness and retiring; for ornament, is in discourse; and for ability, is in the judgment and disposition of business. For expert men can execute, and perhaps judge of particulars, one by one; but the general counsels, and the plots and marshalling of affairs come best from those that are learned.

To spend too much time in studies is sloth; to use them too much for ornament is affection; to make judgment wholly by their rules is the humor of a scholar. They perfect nature and are perfected by experience: for natural abilities are like natural plants, that need pruning by study, and studies themselves do give forth directions too much at large, except they be bounded in by experience.

Crafty men contemn studies, simple men admire them, and wise men use them, for they teach not their own use; but that is a wisdom without them and above them, won by observation. Read not to contradict and confuse; nor to believe and take for granted; nor to find talk and discourse; but to weigh and consider.

Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested; that is some books are to be read only in parts; others to be read, but not curiously; and some few to be ready wholly, and with diligence and attention. Some books also may be read by deputy and extracts made of them by others; but that would be only in the less important arguments, and the meaner sort of books; else distilled books are, like common distilled waters, flashy things.

Reading makes a full man; conference a ready man; and writing an exact man. And therefore, if a man write little, he had need have a great memory; if he confer little, he had need have a present wit; and if he read little, he had need have much cunning to seem to know that he doth not.

Histories make men wise; poets witty; the mathematics subtle; natural philosophy deep; moral grave; logic and rhetoric able to contend.

Abeunt studia in mores. Nay there is no stond or impediment in the wit, but may be wrought out by fit studies: like as diseases of the body may have appropriate exercises. Bowling is good for the stone and reins; shooting for the lungs and breast; gentle walking for the stomach; riding for the head; and the like. So if a man’s wit be wandering, let him study the mathematics; for in demonstrations, if his wit be called away never so little, he must begin again. If his wit be not apt to distinguish or find differences, let him study the schoolmen; for they are cymini sectores. If he be not apt to beat over matters, and to call up one thing to prove and illustrate another, let him study the lawyers’ cases. So every defect of the mind may have a special receipt.

论读书

——廖运范译

读书能给人乐趣、文雅和能力。人们独居或退隐的时候,最能体会到读书的乐趣;谈话的时候,最能表现出读书的文雅;判断和处理事务的时候,最能发挥由读书而获得的能力。那些有实际经验而没有学识的人,也许能够一一实行或判断某些事物的细微末节,但对于事业的一般指导、筹划与处理,还是真正有学问的人才能胜任。

耗费过多的时间去读书便是迟滞,过分用学问自炫便是矫揉造作,而全凭学理判断一切,则是书呆子的癖好。学问能美化人性,经验又能充实学问。天生的植物需要人工修剪,人类的本性也需要学问诱导,而学问本身又必须以经验来规范,否则便太迂阔了。

技巧的人轻视学问,浅薄的人惊服学问,聪明的人却能利用学问。因为学问本身并不曾把它的用途教给人,至于如何去应用它,那是在学问之外、超越学问之上、由观察而获得的一种聪明呢!读书不是为着要辩驳,也不是要盲目信从,更不是去寻找谈话的资料,而是要去权衡和思考。

(责任编辑:新闻)

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